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Full text of "A new and compleat introduction to the grounds and rules of musick, in two books"

I N T 



A New and Compleat - "js** 

RODUCTION 

T O T H E 



| Grounds and Rules of MU SIC 

4 IN TWO BOOKS! 



-a- 

i 



-9. 
-CI- 



N TWO BOOKS; 

BOO KV ; i)^uy«/i( 

* Containing the Grounds and Rules of Musick ; Or an Introduce 4" 
tion to the Art of Singing by Note, taken from Xhomas Walter M. A 

BOOK II. 



I B " 6 O K II. ' I 

J Containing a New and Correct Introduction to the Grounds of Musick, 

Rudimental and Pradical ; from William Tans'ur's Royal Melody : The whole 3£ 
X being a Colle&ion of a Variety of the Choiceft Tunes from the molt approved Mailers. 

O pratfe ye the Lord, prepare your glad V nee, his Praije in the great Affembly to fog 9 
X In our great- Creator let Ifrael rejoice, and Children of Zion be glad in their Kmg.FC.cxllx.i, 



Printed for and Sold by Daniel Bayley of Newbury, 1764. 



Thoughts on Mufick \ By Dr. IVatts. 

HpHE Art of SINGING is a mod charming Gift of the God of Nature; 
and defigned for the Solace of our Sorrows and the Improvement of 
|^ our Joys. Thofe young Perfons who are bleft with a mufical Ear and 
~> Voice, fliould have fome Inftruftion beftowed on them, that they may ac- 
^ quire this delightful Skill. I am forry that the greateft Part of our Spngs, 
whereby young Gentlemen and Ladies are taught to pradice this Art, are 
x of the amorous Kind, and fome of them polluted too. Will no happy 
Genius lend a helping Hand to refcue Mufick from all its Defilements, and 
to furnifh the Tongue with nobler and more refined Mdody ? But Sing- 
ing mud not be named alone. 

Various Harmony both of the Wind and String, were once in Ufe In 
Divine Worfhip, and that by Divine Appointment. It is certain then that 
the Ufe of thefe Inftruments in common Lif$ is no unlawful Praftice, tho' 
the New-Teftament has not ordained the Ufe of it in evangelical Worfbip. 

But 



Bat if the / oice be happily capable of this Art, it is preferable to all Inrti u- 
ments falhioned and compofed by Man: This is an Organ formed and 
tuned by God himfelf. It is mod eafily kept in Exercife, the Skill is re- 
tamed longeft, and the Pleafure tranfcends all the Reft. Where an Ode of 
noble and feraphick Compofure is fet throughout to Mufick.and fung by an 
artful Voice, while the Spirit at the fame Time enjovs a devout Temper 
the Joys of the foul and the Senfe are united, and it approaches to the 
fcnptural Ideas of the celeftial State. 

j Happy the Youth who has a bright and harmonious Conflitution, with 
a pious Turn of Soul, a Ckear Jul Spirit, and a Relifh of facred Melody > 
He takes a frequent Flight above this lower World, beyond the Regions of 
Senfe and Time j he joins the Confort of the heavenly Inhabitants and 
feems to anticipate the Bufinefs and the Bleffednefs of Eternity. 



BOOK I. 



Containing the Grounds and Rules of MUSICK explained ; or an Intro- 
duction to the Art of Singing by Note, taken chiefly from Thomas 
Walter, M. A. 

j-. n npHERE are in nature but feven diftincl: founds, every 8th note beingthe 
rWJt. £ f arne . Thus when a tune is fung by another upon a key too low for the 
. ' compafs of my voice, if I would fing with the perfon, it mutt be all the 
way eight notes above him. A woman naturally ftrikes eight notes above the grum 
and low founding voice of a man, and it makes no more difference than the finging of 
two pcrfons upon a unifon or a pitch. And here let it be obferved, that the height of a 
note and the ftrength of finging it, are two different things. Two notes of equal height 
may be founded fo as that one fhall be heard much farther than the other. 

Second. The eight notes, for the fake of the learners, are called by the namea, Fa, St! % 
La, Mi 9 where it muft be obferved, that from Mi to Fa y as alfo from La to Fa is bur a 
femitone or half note and from Fa to S^from Sol co La, and from La to Mi, is a tone, 
or whole note. That is, in riling from Mi to Fa } ox from La to Fa\ I don*c raife my 

voice, 



A new Introduction 



voice but half as much as in rifing from Fa to-Sol, from Sol to La, and from La to 
Mi. On the other hand, when I fall from Fa to Aft", or Fa to La immediately be- 
low it, 1 fall but half as much as I do from Mi to La, or La to Sol, Sol to Fa, and 
this you wiH perceive with your ear when your Tinging matter mail have learnt you to 
raife and fall your notes. 

Third. The queftion then will be, how (hall I know which is La Fa or Mi Fa 5 
and which is Fa Sol and Sol La, &c. that I may give the former the true found of an 
half note, and the latter the found of an whole note •, for this end was the gamut 
conftrucled and made, wher»e there are feven letters of the alphabet made ufe of, to 
riefign out the feven notes, in order to the knowledge of their names, Fa, So!, La,Mi t 
and by confequence the giving them their true and proper found. 

I mail here prefent to the reader's view a gamut, containing all the ufual keys of 
mufick, in all the placings and removes of the notes Fa Sol La Mli, and then explain 
it, which when we have finifhed, and it is well fluctiied by the learner, it will be an 
cafy matter by the application of the gamut to any tune f to name the notes thereof. 



I Anew Introduction 

Fourth. We fiiall now go on to explain the gamut or fcale of mufick. And here 
you may obferve upon the gamut or icale of mufick, two marks, one over againft 
the uppermoft G but one, (mark'd thus gs) which is called the G fol re nt cliffy from 
the place it ftands the other maik is over againft the lowermoft Fbut one, (mark'd 
thus 3:; which is called the F fa ut cliff, from its Ration on the gamut. The firft 
cf thefeis plac'd upon the trebles or upper parts, and wherever it ftands upon your 
tune, call the line it ftands upon G. Then you are to call the lines andfpaces above 
in order, A, B, C, &c. Call the lines and fpaces below this cliff, F, E, D, C, B, 
A, G, &c. 

Fifth. The other is the cliff ufed upon the bafs, or lower parts of a tune, and you 
are to call the line it ftands upon F, then the lines and fpaces above, G, A, B, &c. 
Thofe defcending are E, D, C, B, A, G,&c. juftin the order you find them upon the 
gamut. Take notice that any tune is only fo miny lines and fpaces (upon which 
notes may be placed,) taken from the gamut •, and that each line and fpace corref- 
yonds with the line 2nd fpace anfweringit on the gamut ; and the fame letter and 
name is underftood to be thereupon, which is in the fame places of the gamut* We 
will then take the firft line of Windfor treble. Seethe examples, page fir/l t)f the 
copper plate, where obferve, every line and fpace is mark'd with the proper letters at 
j^jhe'teginning of the tunc. Upon the loweftTine but one ftands the G cliff, which 

aniwers 



To the Grounds or Music, 1 9 
anfwers to the line upon the gamut, where the fame G cliff does (land. If a note 
ftands upon that line, it (lands upon G, as you find the lad note does. The fpaces 
and lines above, I call in the order of afcending, and as they are there marked, A, B, 
C, &c. the two firft notes and the two laft notes but one, being a fpace above the 
cliff ftands on A. The third and fifth note ftands on the line above that fpace which, 
is B, fo the fourth note is upon C. Thus are you firft of all to learn to name the letters 
upon your tune from the gamut. Again, let us take the Bafs of Windfor the firft line ; 
where firft of all obfervc the F fa ut cliff which fhews the tune, to be a bafs-, the line it 
ftands upon call F, then the lines and fpaces below, you muft call gradually defcend - 
ing, E, D, C, &c. the lines and fpaces above, call G, A, B, &c. Thus in the faid 
tune the firft note ftands a fpace and a line above the F cliff. I call the cliff F, 
the fpace G, the line above that A, which is the place where the two firft notes ftand ; 
The third note is but one fpace above the F cliff, it ftands then upon G, which is a 
note above F. The fourth note is three no:es below the cliff-, count downwards and 
fay, F, E, D, C that note therefore ftands upon C. And fo of all the reft of the 
notes, by counting up or down from the cliff, you may find chem. 

Sixib^ Having thus far proceeded, it will not fee difficult to name the notes by the 
fylla-bles, Fa, Sol, La, Mi, in order to know which are half notes, and which are 
whole notes, and to give them their proper found. Mi is the matter note ; and 

^ B when 



2® A new Introduction 

when you have found which is Mi* call the notes above Fa, Sol, La, Fa, So!, Lff 9 
then the eighth note will be Mi again ; and fo on forever. 

The next queftion then is, how to find Mi ; and here the anfwer is, that the natu- 
ral place for Mi is in B. Look in the fir ft colum of the gamut, and you will find Mi 
upon B, which is the natural place for it. Look for example, on the firft line of Wind* 
for treble, where Mi is upon B. 

But th§n there are other characters ufed in mufic, which ferve to vary the place 
of Mi, that is, totranfpofc it from B, it's natural place, to fome other place or letter £ 
the one is a fiat, the other is a fharp. The B fiat deprefies a note haH a found lower. 
jThus we faid before, that from Mi to Fa is but half a note ; but if Mi has a flat up- 
on it, it is an whole note from Mi to Fa, that is, Mi is an half note lower than it 
was before. The fharp ferves to raife a note as much higher; thws from La to Fa 
afcending, is but an half note ; but if Fa be fharped, it is an whole note above La. Note 
alfo from the gamut, that the fiat makes a note or line before which it is placed, half 
a note lower ; and a fharp makes it as much higher. Look upon the gamut, co- 
lumn firft, and you will fee that from B to C is an half note, viz. Mi, Fa : but upon 
column fecond, frdm B to C is an whole note, that is, Fa Sol \ fo upon column firft * 
of the gamut, you wifl find, that from E to F, which is there La, Fa and in column 
fecond^ where from E to F is Mi, Fa 9 is but an half note 3 but in colum third, where 



To the Grounds op Music. fi 
£ is flatted, From E to F is an whole note, viz. Fa, Sol. So as to the iliarps from E 
to F in the firfl: colum, is but half a note, that is, La, Fa ; but in colum fourth, where 
F is fharped, fr©m Eto F is an whole note, that is La, Mi and fo you may' find it 
in the reft of the columns. 

This gives the reafon of the removes of the Mi, viz. the making the fernitor.es 
whole tones, or the half notes whole notes. 

Fo the /everal Removes of the Mi, take this (hort SCHEME. 
The natural place for Mi, is in B, but if 

B ' F 

Band E 



be flat, Mi is in 



E 
A 



and if 



be iharp, Mi is in 



F. 

G. 



F and C 
F Qand G 

And when you have found Mi in any of thefe variations, the notes above, are 
Fa, Sol, La, Fa, Szc. and below, La, So!, Fa, La, 6?c. as before. 

'The examples will (hew us the fevera! removes of Mi and here you may com- 
pare every example with the gamut, and you wil! find ic antwering note for note; 
only you muft obferve the diftincl: coium of the gamut. You will find the letters, 
the notes, the place of the Mi to correfpond exactly. compare the firft column 
of the gamut, witii the firft example, where Mi is in B : the fecond eclum with the 
fecond example, where B is fiat, and Mi is in E, and fo of the reit. The tune will' 

anfwer 



"ii Anew Introduction 

anfwer with the gamut in all points. See the examples, on page firft of the copper- 
plate. 

8 . Tunes are faid to be upon a flat or fharp key. To know whether your tune be upon 
a flat or a fharp key, this is the general rule, if the two notes above the lad note of you* 
tune be whole notes, it is upon a (harp key ; but if the two notes above, be one an whole 
note, the other an half note, then it is a flat key. For inftance, in Canterbury tune,thc laft 
note is upon G, and is called Fa ; the notes above muft bc.Sol, La, which are two 
whole notes ; fo that from Fa to La is a greater third. Again, in Windfor tune 
the laft note is upon A, and is called La ; the notes above are M/, Fa- 9 which 
makes it a kflcr third. The former confifts of two whole notes ; the other of an 
whole note and an half note. When you have learned to raife and fall your notes, the 
difference of the found will be percptibie by the ear. From this difference of the 
greater and leffer third it follows, that tunes upon fharp keys are chearful and fpright- 
ly, and therefore more fuitable to pfalms of praife and thankfgiving. And the flat 
keys being more grave and mournful, are therefore bed fet and fung to penitential 
pfalmes, and melancholly airs. 

Ninth. The notes in mufick do come under a further confederation, and that is 
their length, or fhortnefs in timing of them: they are known by the names of a 
femibreve, minim, crotchets, quaver, femiquaver. As for their abfoJute length 

A and 



To the Grounds of Music k. 13 
and meafure of time in founding, a femibreve is founded in the tinte that a man 
may let fall his hand flowly, and raife ic again ; letting his hand fall at the firfl 
founding, and taking it up when it is half down, which lifting up of the hand 
fi'nifhes it. 

As for their comparative length, one femibreve contains two minims; one 
minim two crotchets, &c. So that if a femibreve is founded white a man lets fall 
his hand and raifesit again, by confequence a minim is founded while the hand 
is falling, and another while ic is rifing. And two crotchets while it is falling, 
and two while it is rifing, &c. 

From this different length of notes arifes what we call the time of a tune, which, 
is two fold, either common time, or triple time. Common time is meafured by 
even numbers, as 2, 4,&c. each bar including fuch a quantity of nor.es, as will 
amount to one femibreve (which is the meafure note, and guideth all the reft) 
it being called a whole time, or the time n^te. 

Tripla time is meafured by odd numbers, as 3t6,9,&c. each bar including 
either 3 minims, 3 crotchets, or 3 quavers, and mult be founded one third fwiftec 
than common time. 

For the Mufical Characters fee BOOK II. 
The lad Thing we have to direft of, is the dodlrine of concords and difcords 
I fay amongthe feven note?, for there are no more iQ nature, every eighth being 

the? 



14 A new Introduction 

the fame, (only on a higher key,)a third letter and greater, a fifth IefTer and greater, 
aflxth teller and greater, are concords : that is, if I found a third, or fifth, or fixth 
a bove another man, my vaice founds harmonioufly with his. A fecond and feventb 
are difcords ; a fourth is by fome accounted a chord, by others a difcord : but 
lam inclined to think the former. Note a I fo, that if any note is a chord or dif- 
cord to another, the oclaves or eights of the founds are fo too. You will find in the 
following runes, many indances, where the bafs is more than eight notes below 
the tenor anfwering to it: and when it is fo, fuch two notes are a double con- 
cord to one another, and are the fame in nature as a fingle concord. Tbusan 
eighth is the fame with a unifon, a ninth with a fecond, a tenth with a third, &c. 

The treble, bafs, and medius, do not always begin upon a pitch, fometimes 
three, fometimes eight notes, &c. diflance from one another. You may find their 
diftance by obferving theleters on which the fir ft note of each (lands. Thus if the 
tirflnoteof the bafs ftand? on A, and the treble begins on C, they are a third afun- 
der, the bafs mult be begun a third below. 

Finally, obferve that difcords are fometimes made ufe of in mufick, to prepare 
the ear by their harihnefs, and torelifh better the fweetnefs of a following con- 
cord. Thus oftentimes, there will be a»i imperfedl concord, then a difcord 
which is ftill more grating ; which ferves to keep the auditor in a longing fuf- 
pence, till all the parts fall into a perfe6l fee of chords, which finiihes the 
harmony, and firangely charms the hearer. BOCK 11, 



To t if e Grounds of Music. 



l 5 



BOOK II. 

Containing a New and Correft Introduction to the Grounds of Musi ck, 
taken from William Tans'ur's Royal Melody. 

CHAPTER I. 

Of the gamut and its ufe : and of cliffs* 

THE fole fubjeft of this following difcourfe is found : which art or fcience, is* 
called mufick, which m3y be performed, or made either with a voice or an inftru- 
wentj which art may be properly fummed into thefe three* following heads, t»& 
tune, time, and concord. 

Firft. Tune is regulated by the fcale of mujick > called the gamut; which gives 
8 true diflin&ion of all found or tones, whether grave or chearful. 

Second. Time is comprehended and underftood by marks or characters, caSle J 
iootes j which being regularly oq the lines and fpaces cf the ga$u r ? guideth the 



i6 A new Introduction 

performer to a true and exaft movemenc of time, either quick or flow ; wfeicfe 

when performed, tis called melody. 

Third. Concord is when two, three, or more founds are performed together in 
mufical concordance; there being the diftance of 3, 5,8, or more notes above 
another; which when regularly compofed, 'us called harmony, i. e. three in one* 
The tree nature and ufe of thefe three heads, I fhall endeavour to demonftrate, 
and explain in a plain and familiar method, in the following chapters. 

g ift. Of the GAMUT, &c: 

THE gamut or fcale of mufick contains all the degrees of found, which is the 
gramer, or ground- work of all mufick ; without which, no knowledge can be gained 
in this noble and divine fcien.ee. See the gamut on page feventh. 

In the fcale you have a name for every line, and fpace they being either a whole 
•or half note diftant, one from another: and when your notes are fet down on 
any of them, you muft call them by that famename as is given to that line or fpace. 
Obferve that every eighth letter (together with its degree of found) bears the fame 
Dame as was before; the fcale being founded on no more than feven letters, w's. 
G, A, B, C, D,E, F, and then G again ; To every eighth is the fame upwards, or 
^downwards. This fcale you mud learn perfecl by heart, fo that having the name 
©f every line and fpace per feci; in your memory, you may readily caJl your notes 
in any of them. 



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